Muhammad is one of the impactful person in the World history. As a member of Meccan tribe “Quraysh”, his behaviour, decisions and ideas completed the appearance of magnificence that only prophets can possess in every religion. Since the born of Muhammad in 570AD and the time that he got prophecy in 610AD, he was known as Muhammad “al-amin” which meant that “the reliable” person in Mecca. Even though the torturement of Meccan dwellers towards Muhammad because of dismissing new kind of religion, he was able to expand his religious authority from Mecca to Arabian Peninsula. After his demise, Islamic state had reached the whole Arabian Peninsula under the command of Rashidun Caliphate, which started the new era for World history. To sum up, as a prophet of Islamic Belief, Muhammad had left a massive effect to the World.
MECCA IN THE MIDDLE OF 6TH CENTURY AND REPUTATION OF MUHAMMAD
The city of Mecca was founded by “Abraham (Ibrahim)” who was a accepted prophet for Jewish, Christianity and Islam. As per Islamic custom, Abraham, his wife “Hajar (Hacer) ” and child “Ishmael (Ismail)”, relocated from their country on account of the solicitation of Abraham’s senior spouse “Sarah”. Despite the fact that Abraham went to the city with them, he left Ismail and Hajar and got back to his country. Hajar, who was left by Abraham, found the holy water “Zamzam” and assured the unknown area to be one of the great commercial centers in Arabian Peninsula with her son Ismail. Additionally, Islamic practice expresses that the structure of “Kaaba” which is acknowledged as home of “Allah” was reconstructed by Ismail and his dad Abraham with the request for Allah.
Aftermath of becoming the greatest hotspot of Arabian Peninsula, new comers, tribes, and commercial men gathered there. From the 6th century onwards, Mecca asserted its significance and carried on its authority expansion towards arabian peninsula. Tribes and other dynamics increased and in terms of religion, paganism was at the top of hierarchy.
Even the building of Kaaba which was reconstructed by Abraham and Ismail, was determined as the home of idols and Meccan dwellers were walking around them which is known as pilgrimage. On contrary to paganism a group of people who devoted the old religion of Abraham “Hanif” had occurred less than pagan belief. Furthermore, the area of Mecca “Hejaz” was also recognized as the holy territories where pre-Islamic or anthique Gods’ and Goddess’ had existed. This period of Hejaz and Mecca was considered as the time of Ignorace (Jahiliyyah) which Muhammad was born in the middle of that time in for Islamic Belief.
The born of Muhammad brought some miracles for Islamic account which; the fire of Zoroastrian Persia which was still burning for 1000 years (Sassanids) had died out while most of the idols in Kaaba had broken out suddenly. However, besides these miracles, Muhammad was born without having a father and in his sixth year, his mother had died which left Muhammad with his grandfather Abdulmuttalip. Abdulmuttalip who was the head of the most powerful Meccan Clan “Quraysh”, took care of Muhammad until his death. Muhammad was eight years old when his grandfather died, upon this unluckiness, his uncle Abu Talib took care and made him commercial man when Muhammad twelve years old.
The reputation of Muhammad was well-known and every citizen in Mecca liked him thanks to his reliability and his beauty. With his positive status, he married with another commercial woman Khadija who always supported Muhammad in his prophecy time very well. As a result, Mecca was founded by Hajar and his son Ismail and sophisticated itself through new comer tribes, commercial men and others. The greatest religion was paganism and there were a few people who were devoted to Abraham’s religion. Muhammad who was born in that environment achieved to represent himself as a reliable person thorughout Mecca and other cities.
TIME OF PROPHECY
The Muhammad was quite religious man believed the religion of Abraham. He always went to the “Nour Mountain” and moved himself away from the crowd of the city. Once, when he went to the mountain again, he received revelation by Archangel Gibrael in 610AD. The responsibility of explaining the “new” religion in the world, was taken by Muhammad. According to Islamic sources, Muhammad was ordered to declare this new religion towards his relatives secretly and then he launched to expand his mission to whole Meccan community.
From his initial speeches, some opposition groups who denied the new belief tortured Muhammad and sought a way to prevent the expansion of Islam. Meccan society that devoted to their old traditions extremely dissmissed Muhammad’s religious approach and the torturement to the Muslim group was manifested. Muhammad’s first explanations were aimed to poor or weak people, non-existing a powerful figure who can assert Muhammad’s idea in Muslim group caused Muhammad and his followers to witness torturement times towards them.
However, Umar ibn al-Khattab and uncle of Muhammad; Hamza’s declaration for Islamism who were the most powerful actors at that era, hyped Muslim morale and even encouraged them to prepare any conflict with pagan Quraysh tribe. Muhammad awared that new religion had to be streched out of Mecca. Also, the continiation of Meccan torture to the Muslims, made Muhammad to consider the immigration. The first immigrants of Islam was ordered to go “Axum Kingdom” which was modern Ethiopia ruled by “Christian King” Negos Ashame, and second immigrants went to the Ta’if under the conduction of Muhammad. However, discontent of Ta’if people to the Muhammad and even attacking his group, delayed the Islamicization of Ta’if.
As a third part of immigration had held with Medinan people that is known as the “Pledge of al-Aqabah” twice. This incident led Islam to expand its religious context to Medina where became the city of Prophet. With Pledges of al-Aqabah, Muslims had been immigrating from Mecca to Medina except Muhammad and his relatives. Eventually, Muhammad migrated to Medina and new era had begun for Muslims. After that the city of Yasrib named Medina’t al-Nebi which means the City of Prophet.
In terms of politic affairs, Muhammad applied a peace agreement between tribes and Jewish community of Medina which is called as “Constitution of Medina”. With the ensurement of peace in Medina, Muslim were ready to sophisticate and empower themselves against the ongoing threats of Mecca. Muslims were constructing masjid, schools (Suffah) and re-paid attention to commerce activities. At the period of late antiquity, commerce and other commercial commitments were realized by caravan tradeship in Arabian Peninsula. Whoever can prevail the caravan route, will take the political and economical power. Therefore, Muhammad applied the threatening Meccan caravan routes one by one and finally organized an attack to caravan group without killing women, children, and whoever surrendered. This conflict created a dispute and aggression on the Meccan side. Thus, Meccan army gathered and launched an attack towards Muslims in Medina. The first conflict or the “Badr War” that happened between Paganists versus Muslims, concluded with Muslim victory over Meccan pagans in 624AD.
Following, Muslim army was beaten by Meccan pagans because of unorganization of Muslims in “Uhud War” that manifested one year later. Even though the defeat, Muslims had recovered themselves and improved their capacity under the command of Muhammad. Then, the final conflict was happened that Muhammad’s army defenced their city so, the path of conquest was opened. As a powerful figure in Medina, Muhammad demanded Meccan rulers for allowing Muslim pilgrimage in Kaaba. Upon this request, Meccan elite accepted this terms and Hudeybiye Agreement was signed between Pagan Mecca and Muslim Medina.
However, infrigements of Meccan elite to Hudeybiye Agreement and excitement of completing the expansion of Islam towards Mecca and its enviorenment, Muhammad decided to conquer Mecca through an organized attack, but pagan leaders had to surrender because of weakness. The conquest of Mecca in 630AD assured Muhammad to enlarge his religion to out of Hejaz territory through sending letters towards the monarchs or emperors of environment.
“In the name of the God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.Prophet Muhammad’s letter to Roman Emperor Heraclius
From Muhammad, Worshiper and Messenger of the God to Heraclius of the Romans:
Peace be upon he who follows the guidance.
Furthermore, I invite you with the invitation of peace.
If you submit then you will find safety and God will double your reward.
If you turn away, you will be responsible for the Arians’ sins (because you persecuted them).
“O followers of the scripture, let us come to a logical agreement between us and you: that we shall not worship except the God; that we never set up any idols besides Him, nor set up any human beings as lords beside the God.” If they turn away, say, “Bear witness that we are submitters.”
(Quran, Chapter: Aal Imran “The House of Joachim” 3:64)
Seal: Muhammad, the Prophet of the God.”
Muhammad’s political power and Islam’s religious expansion had reached its peak point, so Muhammad decided to invite the Jewish tribes that betrayed and attacked Muslims in “Trench War”, but this demand was dissmissed by Jews. Upon the dissmission, Muslim army seized the “Castle of Khaybar” which happened in 629. From the last years of Muhammad, wars like Mut’ah and Hunayn had manifested and Islam expanded its domination from southern Arabian Peninsula to Iraq.
DEMISE OF MUHAMMAD AND AFTERMATH
Since the foundation of Islam, Muhammad dealt with plenty of difficulties that solved by him as well. His teachings are applying as “Sunnah” as imitating the behaviours of Muhammad and sayings were kept on records that cited as “Hadith” which accepted as most important source of Islam after the Qur’an. Whole Muslim societies embrace and love him positively and even some parts of Christians and other religious aspects approach him as positively in terms of his moralistic behaviour. According to Muslim tradition, after the demise of Muhammad, some “false prophets” derived in Arabian Peninsula though Muhammad’s strict explanation about he was the “last of the prophets”.
Also, the religious division as Sunni & Shia in Islam was taken part. In addition, passing away of Muhammad caused authoritical space in Muslim lands so, Rashidun Caliphate took the power and ruled the Caliphate until the ascension of Umayyad Caliphate by Yazid I. Afterwards, the Abbasid Caliphate seized the throne that political divisions had occurred such as Andalus Umayyads in Iberian Peninsula, Fatimids in North Africa and Abbasids in Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Mesopotamia to Persian territories.
The undebatable authority of Arabian people as a protector of Islam had passed this guardianship to Turkish Empires such as Seljuks, Ottomans, Baburids and Safavids. To sum up, Islamic Empire that founded by Muhammad had seperated some parts in terms of difference of Islamic sects and political structure of Islamic states. Even though he passed away about 1400 years ago, his ideas and teachings are still learning and covering by Muslim communities.
Hence, Muhammad was one o the crucial actors in the world history. His prophecy and behaviour are always welcomed by every religious person in the World. As a Prophet of Islam, Muhammad ensured Islam to expand its dominance from eastern borders to the west. Acts, speeches and teachings of Muhammad are still accepting and living by Muslim societies throughout the World.